Volume 17, Issue 54 (2024)                   JMED 2024, 17(54): 131-138 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

R D, Ajay Kumar S, Shenoy A, Kannan S. Effectiveness of delivering disability competencies to undergraduate medical students in a foundation course in a Government Medical College: A quasi-experimental study. JMED 2024; 17 (54) :131-138
URL: http://edujournal.zums.ac.ir/article-1-2032-en.html
Department of Community Medicine, ESICMC & Hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Abstract:   (799 Views)
Background & Objective: Globally, 16% of the world’s population, or 1 in 6 of us, experience significant disability. Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) are likely to encounter insufficient healthcare provider skills to address their specific needs, to encounter denial of care, and to experience mistreatment from healthcare providers. In the diverse field of medicine, medical practitioners are often confronted with the challenge of providing equitable and effective healthcare to all patients, including those with disabilities.
Material & Methods: A quasi experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of a need-based structured module on disability competencies with a pre-, post-, and retention post-test design. The study included 75 first year MBBS foundations students who completed the entire module. Data on knowledge regarding disability competencies was collected using a pre-test, an immediate post-test, and a retention post-test after 3 months of intervention. We used RMANOVA to compare the pretest, post-test, and 3-month retention post test scores at the 0.05 significance level.
Results: Totally, 45 (53.3%) boys and 35 (46.7%) girls participated in the study. Overall pretest scores was 10.92 ± 1.75 (95% CI: 10.54 – 11.30), which significantly increased to 19.24 ± 2.63 (95% CI: 18.66–19.82) (p < 0.001) following the course, and the scores were sustained at 18.67 ± 2.72 (95% CI: 18.07–19.27) even after 3 months following training. RMANOVA determined the increase in mean scores was statistically significant between assessment stages (pretest, post-test, and retention test) (F (1.3, 95.5) = 460.69, p < 0.001). The scores increased significantly across all domains of disability competency training (p < 0.001). A paired t test between scores shows a significant increase in scores across all domains between pre-test and post-test (p < 0.001); scores did not reduce significantly even after 3 months.
Conclusion: Training medical students in disability competencies using structured modules increased their knowledge significantly post-training, which was retained even after 3 months. Disability competency training is crucial to ensure equitable and inclusive healthcare, reduce healthcare disparities, and improve overall patient care outcomes.
Full-Text [PDF 336 kb]   (47 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (10 Views)  
Article Type : Orginal Research | Subject: Medical Education
Received: 2023/08/22 | Accepted: 2024/01/2 | Published: 2024/05/10

1. Global report on health equity for persons with disabilities. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. [Online]. Available from: [DOI]
2. Dambal A, Gururaj H, Aithal KR, et al. Delivering disability competencies of MCI's revised competency based curriculum at a medical university in North Karnataka. Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 2021;77:S65-72. [DOI]
3. Census of India. Disabled population by type of disability, age and sex – C20 Table. [Online]. Available from: [DOI]
4. Gudlavalleti VS. Challenges in accessing health care for people with disability in the South Asian context: a review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(11):2366. [DOI]
5. Carroll A. World report on disability. Ir Med J. 2012; 105(5). [Online]. Available from: [DOI]
6. Bowen CN, Havercamp SM, Bowen SK, Nye G. A call to action: Preparing a disability-competent health care workforce. Disability and Health Journal. 2020;13(4):100941. [DOI]
7. Symons AB, McGuigan D, Akl EA. A curriculum to teach medical students to care for people with disabilities: development and initial implementation. BMC Medical Education. 2009; 9(1): 1-7. [DOI]
8. Long-Bellil LM, Robey KL, Graham CL, et al. Teaching medical students about disability: the use of standardized patients. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(9):1163-70. [DOI]
9. Varshney M, Parel JT, Raizada N, Sarin SK. Initial psychological impact of COVID-19 and its correlates in Indian Community: an online (FEEL-COVID) survey. PLoS One. 2020;15(5):1–10. [DOI]
10. Bu P, Veloski JJ, Ankam NS. Effects of a brief curricular intervention on medical students’ attitudes toward people with disabilities in healthcare settings. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2016;95(12):939-45. [DOI]
11. Singh S, Cotts KG, Maroof KA, Dhaliwal U, Singh N, Xie T. Disability-inclusive compassionate care: disability competencies for an Indian Medical Graduate. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2020;9(3):1719-27. [DOI]
12. Medical Council of India. Foundation course for the undergraduate medical education program. 2019:1–46. [Online]. Available from: [Article]
13. Tervo RC, Palmer G. Health professional student attitudes towards people with disability. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2004;18(8):908-15. [DOI]
14. Thistlethwaite JE, Ewart BR. Valuing diversity: helping medical students explore their attitudes and beliefs. Medical Teacher. 2003;25(3):277-81. [DOI]
15. Lee D, Pollack SW, Mroz T, Frogner BK, Skillman SM. Disability competency training in medical education. Medical Education Online. 2023;28(1):2207773. [DOI]
16. Gallego-Ortega JL, Rodríguez-Fuentes A. Teaching attitudes towards students with disabilities. Mathematics. 2021;9(14):1637. [DOI]
17. Ioerger M, Flanders RM, French-Lawyer JR, Turk MA. Interventions to teach medical students about disability: a systematic search and review. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2019;98(7):577-99. [DOI]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.